The evolution of mathematics as a discipline has been marked by the contributions of numerous scholars, but none stands as towering as Archimedes, often referred to as the Father of Mathematics. His work laid the foundation for many aspects of modern mathematics, engineering, and physics. In this article, we provide a detailed overview of Archimedes' life, his pioneering work, and his enduring influence. Interestingly, the term "father of mathematics of India" is also used to refer to Brahmagupta, a key figure in ancient Indian mathematics known for his contributions to arithmetic and geometry.

Born in 287 BC in Syracuse, Sicily, Archimedes was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Despite limited records about his early education, it is widely accepted that Archimedes studied in Alexandria, Egypt. This city, a hub for intellectual thought during the Hellenistic period, provided Archimedes with access to the works of great mathematicians such as Euclid and other scholars from the Library of Alexandria.

Archimedes' works cover a broad spectrum of mathematics. His methodologies were revolutionary and ahead of their time, influencing not just mathematics, but also engineering and physics. Below are some of his most significant contributions.

Archimedes' Principle is one of his most famous discoveries, formulated during his exploration of buoyancy. The principle states that a body immersed in a fluid experiences a force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. This concept forms the foundation of hydrostatics and is still widely applied in fields like engineering, fluid dynamics, and maritime sciences.

Archimedes made one of the earliest documented attempts to calculate pi (π), the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. He employed a method of exhaustion, approximating the value of pi by inscribing and circumscribing polygons around a circle. His calculations allowed him to determine that pi lies between 3.1408 and 3.14285, an approximation that remained unrivaled for centuries.

Archimedes refined the method of exhaustion, a precursor to integral calculus. By using this technique, he was able to determine the areas of shapes such as circles, parabolas, and ellipses. This method involved dividing a shape into an infinite number of smaller parts, calculating the area of each, and summing them to determine the total area.

Archimedes also contributed to engineering through his invention of the Archimedean screw. This device, designed to lift water from lower to higher elevations, has been used extensively in agriculture and irrigation. Modern adaptations of this invention are still in use today in water systems and sewage treatment plants.

Archimedes' work on levers and pulleys revolutionized the understanding of mechanical advantage. He is famously quoted as saying, “Give me a place to stand, and I will move the Earth.” His formulation of the law of the lever became a cornerstone in mechanics and engineering.

Archimedes was deeply fascinated by geometry and contributed to the development of numerous geometric principles. His works on spheres, cylinders, and cones are particularly notable.

One of Archimedes’ most profound achievements was determining the surface area and volume of a sphere. He derived that the surface area of a sphere is four times that of a circle with the same radius, and the volume is two-thirds that of the cylinder in which it is inscribed.

Another notable geometric contribution was the discovery of the Archimedean spiral, a curve that moves farther away from a fixed point as it revolves around it. This discovery laid the foundation for understanding spiral motion, and today it has applications in fields such as astronomy and physics.

Archimedes’ influence extends far beyond ancient Greece. His methods and discoveries are the bedrock of modern calculus, engineering, hydrodynamics, and astronomy. Mathematicians such as Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz acknowledged his methods as instrumental in the development of infinitesimal calculus. Engineers continue to apply his principles of mechanics and hydrostatics in contemporary fields, while physicists still marvel at his intuitive understanding of the forces of nature.

Archimedes’ works were recorded in treatises, most of which were unfortunately lost over time. However, some of his surviving works include:

- On the Sphere and Cylinder
- On Floating Bodies
- The Sand Reckoner
- On Spirals

In 1906, the Archimedes Palimpsest, a manuscript containing several of his previously unknown works, was discovered. This led to new insights into his methodologies and reaffirmed his genius in both theoretical and practical applications.

Archimedes’ death came in 212 BC, during the Roman siege of Syracuse. According to historical accounts, he was killed by a Roman soldier, despite orders from the Roman general Marcellus to spare his life. Archimedes’ last words are said to have been, “Do not disturb my circles,” referring to a geometric problem he was engrossed in at the time of his death.

Archimedes’ unparalleled contributions to mathematics and engineering have shaped the development of modern science. His methods of problem-solving, calculation of pi, invention of machines like the Archimedean screw, and his insights into the laws of nature continue to inspire mathematicians, engineers, and scientists. His work exemplifies the power of human ingenuity and serves as a lasting testament to the profound impact of mathematics on the world.

**What is the father of modern mathematics?**

The title "Father of Modern Mathematics" is often attributed to René Descartes for his contributions to algebra and geometry, particularly for developing the Cartesian coordinate system.

**Who is the father of mathematics in the world?**

Archimedes is widely recognized as the "Father of Mathematics" due to his groundbreaking work in geometry, calculus, and mathematical physics.

**Who was the first mathematician?**

The earliest known mathematician is Thales of Miletus, who is often regarded as the first to apply deductive reasoning to geometry.

**Who is known as the mother of maths?**

Hypatia of Alexandria, an ancient Greek philosopher, is known as the "Mother of Mathematics" for her significant contributions to mathematics and astronomy.

**Who is the first king of mathematics?**

Leonhard Euler is sometimes referred to as the "King of Mathematics" due to his extensive work across various mathematical disciplines.